The objective of primary treatment is the removal of settleable organic and inorganic solids by sedimentation, and the removal of materials that will float (scum) by skimming. Approximately 25 to 50% of the incoming biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50 to 70% of the total suspended solids (SS), and 65% of the oil and grease are removed during primary treatment. Some organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and heavy metals associated with solids are also removed during primary sedimentation but colloidal and dissolved constituents are not affected. The effluent from primary sedimentation units is referred to as primary effluent. Table 12 provides information on primary effluent from three sewage treatment plants in California along with data on the raw wastewaters.
Table 12: QUALITY OF RAW WASTEWATER AND PRIMARY EFFLUENT AT SELECTED TREATMENT PLANTS IN CALIFORNIA
|Quality parameters (mg/l, except as otherwise indicated)||City of Davis||San Diego||Los Angeles County Joint Plant|
|Raw wastewater||Primary effluent||Raw wastewater||Primary effluent||Raw wastewater||Primary effluent|
|Biochemical oxygen demand,BOD5||112||73||184||134||–||204|
|Total organic carbon||63.8||40.6||64.8||52.3||–||–|
|Electrical conductivity, dS/m||2.52||2.34||2.19||–|
|Total dissolved solids||–||–||829||821||1404||1406|
|Soluble sodium percentage, %||–||–||70.3|
|Sodium adsorption ratio||–||–||–||–||8.85||6.8|
Source: Asano and Tchobanoglous (1987)
In many industrialized countries, primary treatment is the minimum level of preapplication treatment required for wastewater irrigation. It may be considered sufficient treatment if the wastewater is used to irrigate crops that are not consumed by humans or to irrigate orchards, vineyards, and some processed food crops. However, to prevent potential nuisance conditions in storage or flow-equalizing reservoirs, some form of secondary treatment is normally required in these countries, even in the case of non-food crop irrigation. It may be possible to use at least a portion of primary effluent for irrigation if off-line storage is provided.
Primary sedimentation tanks or clarifiers may be round or rectangular basins, typically 3 to 5 m deep, with hydraulic retention time between 2 and 3 hours. Settled solids (primary sludge) are normally removed from the bottom of tanks by sludge rakes that scrape the sludge to a central well from which it is pumped to sludge processing units. Scum is swept across the tank surface by water jets or mechanical means from which it is also pumped to sludge processing units.
In large sewage treatment plants (> 7600 m3/d in the US), primary sludge is most commonly processed biologically by anaerobic digestion. In the digestion process, anaerobic and facultative bacteria metabolize the organic material in sludge (see Example 3), thereby reducing the volume requiring ultimate disposal, making the sludge stable (nonputrescible) and improving its dewatering characteristics. Digestion is carried out in covered tanks (anaerobic digesters), typically 7 to 14 m deep. The residence time in a digester may vary from a minimum of about 10 days for high-rate digesters (well-mixed and heated) to 60 days or more in standard-rate digesters. Gas containing about 60 to 65% methane is produced during digestion and can be recovered as an energy source. In small sewage treatment plants, sludge is processed in a variety of ways including: aerobic digestion, storage in sludge lagoons, direct application to sludge drying beds, in-process storage (as in stabilization ponds), and land application.