Effects Of Hygroscopic Properties Of Wood

Because of its nature, wood tends to absorb moisture from the air when the relative humidity is high, and to lose it when the relative humidity is low. Moisture imbibed into the cell walls causes the wood to shrink and swell as the moisture content changes with the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The maximum amount of imbibed moisture the cell walls can hold is known as the fiber-saturation point, and for most species is in the vicinity of 25 to 30% of the oven-dry weight of the wood. Free water held in the cell cavities above the fiber-saturation point has no effect upon shrinkage or other properties of the wood. Changes in moisture content below the fiber-saturation point cause negligible shrinkage or swelling along the grain, and such shrinkage and swelling are normally ignored; but across the grain, considerable shrinkage and swelling occur in both the radial and tangential direction. Tangential shrinkage (as in flat-cut material) is normally approximately 50% greater than radial shrinkage (as in edge-grain material).

Separation of grain, or checking, is the result of rapid lowering of surface moisture content combined with a difference in moisture content between inner and outer portions of the piece. As wood loses moisture to the surrounding atmosphere, the outer cells of the member lose at a more rapid rate than the inner cells. As the outer cells try to shrink, they are restrained by the inner portion of the member. The more rapid the drying, the greater will be the differential in shrinkage between outer and inner fibers, and the greater the shrinkage stresses. As a result, checks may develop into splits.

Checks are radial cracks caused by nonuniform drying of wood. A split is a crack that results from complete separation of the wood fibers across the thickness of a member and extends parallel to the grain. (Shakes are another type of defect. Usually parallel to an annular ring, they develop in standing trees, whereas checks and splits are seasoning defects.) Lumber grading rules limit these types of defects.

Checks affect the horizontal shear strength of timber. A large reduction factor is applied to test values in establishing design values, in recognition of stress concentrations at the ends of checks. Design values for horizontal shear are adjusted for permissible checking in the various stress grades at the time of the grading. Since strength properties of wood increase with dryness, checks may enlarge with increasing dryness after shipment, without appreciably reducing shear strength.

Cross-grain checks and splits that tend to run out the side of a piece, or excessive checks and splits that tend to enter connection areas, may be serious and may require servicing. Provisions for controlling the effects of checking in connection areas may be incorporated in design details.

To avoid excessive splitting between rows of bolts caused by shrinkage during seasoning of solid-sawn timbers, rows should not be spaced more than 5 in apart, or a saw kerf, terminating in a bored hole, should be provided between lines of bolts. Whenever possible, maximum end distances for connections should be specified to minimize the effect of checks running into the joint area. Some designers require stitch bolts in members, with multiple connections loaded at an angle to the grain. Stitch bolts, kept tight, will reinforce pieces where checking is excessive.

One of the principal advantages of glued-laminated timber construction is relative freedom from checking. Seasoning checks may, however, occur in laminated members for the same reasons that they exist in solid-sawn members. When laminated members are glued within the typical range of moisture contents of 7 to 16% for the laminating lumber at the time of gluing, they will approximate the moisture content in normal-use conditions, thereby minimizing checking. Moisture content of the lumber at the time of gluing is thus of great importance to the control of checking in service. However, rapid changes in moisture content of large wood sections after gluing will result in shrinkage or swelling of the wood, and during shrinking, checking may develop in both glued joints and wood.

Differentials in shrinkage rates of individual laminations tend to concentrate shrinkage stresses at or near the glue line. For this reason, when checking occurs, it is usually at or near glue lines. The presence of wood-fiber separation indicates adequate glue bonds, and not delamination.

In general, checks have very little effect on the strength of glued-laminated members. Laminations in such members are thin enough to season readily in kiln drying without developing checks. Since checks lie in a radial plane, and the majority of laminations are essentially flat grain, checks are so positioned in horizontally laminated members that they will not materially affect shear strength. When members are designed with laminations vertical (with wide face parallel to the direction of load application), and when checks may affect the shear strength, the effect of checks may be evaluated in the same manner as for checks in solid-sawn members.

Seasoning checks in bending members affect only the horizontal shear strength. They are usually not of structural importance unless the checks are significant in depth and occur in the midheight of the member near the support, and then only if shear governs the design of the members. The reduction in shear strength is nearly directly proportional to the ratio of depth of check to width of beam. Checks in columns are not of structural importance unless the check develops into a split, thereby increasing the slenderness ratio of columns.

Minor checking may be disregarded, since there is ample safety factor in allowable design values. The final decision as to whether shrinkage checks are detrimental to the strength requirements of any particular design or structural member should be made by a competent engineer experienced in timber construction.

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